четверг, 28 ноября 2013 г.

About the tribe Hori


"Out Genghis Khan,
A Hori remain -
Tenacious tribe at all times.
Is it Asian open spaces to wander?
And drank the cup of nomads
to the bottom. "
Bair Dugarov

 Content:
Introduction
The origin of Hori Buryats
Flags and Coat of Arms
Legends of Hori-Buryat: Babzha Baras Baatar
The symbolic expression of traditional culture Hori.
Color symbolism
Symbolism of numbers
Symbolism of happiness


Introduction
Background research we see in the growth of traditional Buryat existing interest in the ancestors, ancestry, tribal entities, small home.
The Buryats are one of the ethnic groups that make Mongolian language and historical and cultural community.
Modern Buryats are not only often successful at reproducing their memory pedigrees, but also often call themselves ehirit, bulagat, hongodor, Hori. The composition and meaning of these groups, in our opinion, deserves to be the subject of a separate study.
Appeal to the topic is also due to the revival and development of the national culture, ethnic traditions, and the growing interest in religious cult concepts, various forms of performance of rites and rituals.
The origin of Hori Buryats
The book "The Secret History of the Mongols," says: "The ancestor of Genghis Khan Bүrte-Shono lived with his wife Gua Maral in the area of Burhan Khaldun and here was born his son Bata Sagaan." Bata Sagaan has a son Dobu Mergen, which married Alan-goa.
Father of Alan-Goa Horidoy became the first noyon Hori-Tumat. He had three wives - Bargudzhin-goa, daughter Barguday - Mergen, Sharaldai and Nagaaday. From Bargudzhin-goa he had one daughter - Alan-goa, born in Arik Us. She was mother of Bordjigin – great grandfather of Genghis Khan.
    Goa Maral   

Horidoy by his second wife had sons: Galzut, Huatsay, Hubdut, Sharayt and Guchid, and from the third wife - Hargan, Hood Bodongut, Halban, Batanay Sagan. Continuing to multiply, children have become heads of 11 genera, and due to the fact that the name of their father was just Horiday common name them, according to this, it was called by Hori. The names of the sons are called top 11 Horinsk birth.
During the Mongol rule tribe Hori was withdrawn in northeastern Mongolia, where he lived until the early 16th century, getting into a relationship to one, then the other small Mongol Khanate.
After all, when the matriarch of Hori was daughter Buyant Zasag Khan from Inner Mongolia and noble horinki Shene Gerel, Balzhin Hatan, who married the son of the Mongol-Noyon Buubey Bailey Give Huntayzhi, Hori went from Mongolia to their land, as they were leaving in the IX century. Following them was equipped chase Buubey-Bailey returned the back his son, running away with his wife, and later caught and Balzhin-Hatan. People Buubey Bailey killed her, and cutting off his chest, threw them into the lake, making it became white. Hori called this lake Balzhin-Nuur.
when the matriarch of Hori was Balzhin Hatan, Hori went from Mongolia to their land, which they were leaving in the IX century.
  Baldzin Hatan. Picture: Лариса Эрдынеева


Flags and Coat of Arms
Each Hori tribe has its flag and coat of arms
The bright red flag has a gold frame. In circle is an image of the dog – totem of Galzuud, the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "galzuud" at the bottom of old Mongolian.
The yellow flag has a green frame. In circle is an image of elk – totem of "huasay", the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "huasay" at the bottom of old Mongolian.
The blue flag with a gold frame. The eagle is a totem of "hubduud", the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "hubduud" at the bottom of old Mongolian.
The brown  flag has a gold frame. In circle is image of lynx – hudays totem, the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "Khudai," the bottom of the old Mongolian.
The yellow flag with red ocher frame. In circle is image of red deer - sharayts totem, the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "sharayd" at the bottom of old Mongolian.
The black flag has a gold frame. In circle is image of merlin - harganats totem, the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "Hargan," the bottom of the old Mongolian.
The crimson flag with a gold frame. In circle is an image of grouse - gushads totem, the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "gushad" at the bottom of old Mongolian.
The brown  flag with a gold frame. In circle is an image of boar - bodonguts totem, the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "bodonguud" at the bottom of old Mongolian.
             
The white flag with a dark blue frame. In circle is a picture of a wolf - Sagans totem, the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "Sagaan" at the bottom of old Mongolian.
The black flag with a gold frame. In circle is an image of column - halbins totem, the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "halban" at the bottom of old Mongolian.
The green flag with a gold frame. In the circle is a rabbit - batanays totem, the top is written in the Cyrillic alphabet "batanay" at the bottom of old Mongolian.
Today Hori Buryats live in Yeravninsky, Kizhinginsky, Khorinsky, and its small part in Mukhorshibirsky, Bichursky aimags. Unlike the old flags each aimag, where Hori live, have today modern flags.
 Flag of Eravninsky aimag is made in the form of a five-color Hadak. The upper blue color symbolizes the eternal blue sky. The yellow color is a golden sun. The bottom two colors - red and green represent all living beings with red blood on the green earth. The middle white separates two worlds - top and bottom, and gives balance. On the flag we see a white swan - mother of Hori. The flag has two red ribbons - zhodbon that carries security function.
Flag of Horinsky aimag placed on a silver shield. Flags of Russia and Buryatia are woven with ornament "friendship." Here we see a pattern "Soyombo" - sun, moon and fire - the eternal search. Also, there existents symbol of  Hori - swan. 11 yurts represent 11 genera of Hori.
At the background of blue sky in the middle of the Kishinga flag stands Subarga "Dzharun Khashor", which was constructed only in our area, after Nepal. Floating Swan - Hori totem. Sun - the source of life, warmth, and all life on our planet. The shape of musical signs underlines a special musical gift Kizhinginsky sons and daughters of the land. Chelsana Mountain - is one of the most revered sites, which protects against various ills and "dark" forces, wishing good luck to all and Spark (Soyombo) - the beginning of life and eternity on earth. Hitching post birch - a symbol of hospitality, openness souls of our fellow countrymen. Separately: lily (Ulaalzay) is listed in the Red Book of Buryatia, is the personification of purity. The inscription "Hezhenge", acquiring a crescent shape, symbolizes the mystery of life and the passage of time. Author: Gomboev GG
Legends of Hori-Buryat
Babzha Baras Baatar
 Babzha. Sculpture of Ц.Цыжыпов.Photo: Н. Лысак
There are interesting legends and stories about the historical figure, Taizhou (Prince) hori-Buryat Babzha Baras-bator, who in the seventeenth century, who joined the fight against the Manchu aggression. It's about the hero who protects your people, praised Herculean strength, mastery of the bow.
Among the steppe in Yaruuna towering majestic stone sculptures, and the marvelous beauty of the majestic gaze attack opens the legendary Babzhi Baras-Bator - Hora-Shuluun, which means stone fence. Most involve the stone pillars that seem large hedge or defensive attack, in which are divided into three separate parts, and on the south side lined with loose stones, like the door. According to legend, Babzhi Baras-Bator with his brothers built a stone fence to stop the onslaught of enemies at night and close your herd.
To the South-West from HoreoShuluun there is a beautiful stone overhand with the height of 4-5 meters. There are some caves inside it where the height is 2 meters and the width is 3 meters. Besides there is a stone ground of Babzha-BarasBator with the hill of half a metre, the length of 4-5 metres the width of 2-3 metres. There is also a dent in the middle of the ground, where there was Babzha-Baras Bator’s head of the bed and body. Further there is a train of rocky poles with the height of 5-6 metres and its circle is 100 metres. Moreover there is anancient alphabet on the exterior side of the rock.
Author: Лыгденов Жамбал. Институт ФСИН России, Пермь, Россия
The symbolic expression of traditional culture Hori.
Color symbolism

Color is a leading, organizing space beginning that can cause the viewer an active emotional response. In Hori - Buryat culture, color plays a big role, as each specific color has a specific meaning, symbolizes a particular concept.
In the book "Time of Fire" N.Angaraeva distributes four characters in districts inhabited by Buryats. "Symbol of Tunka, Oka, Zakamenka - fire, the symbol of Aga, Horinsky area, Yaruvny, and Kizhinga - the sky, a symbol of Ust-Orda - earth, a symbol of Olkhon, Kurumkan, Barguzin - water." Based on the foregoing, we take the liberty to endow color symbolism Buryat tribes. Fire is red, then Tunkinskie, Oka, Zakamensky Buryats, tribes of hongodory are red. Once the sky and the water is blue, the Hori-Buryat, kurumkantsy are blue Buryats. Ehirity, Bulagaty with symbol as the earth are black Buryats.
Blue color
Foto: A. Ligdenova
In national symbols - the blue color represents one of the two major higher powers - the Eternal Blue Sky (Huhe Munkhe Tengri). Therefore, the symbolism of blue is for the Buryat culture one of the main ethnic and cultural constants. In the mythology of the Buryat  sky - a symbol of masculinity.
.Blue color serves to express the idea of ​​primordial ethnicity. Totemic ancestor Hori-Buryat is a swan, a creature that is associated with the sky.
White color

Picture of N. Dudko
Especially significant attributive symbolic white for such a mythological character, as the White Elder, the patron saint of longevity, wealth, happiness, family welfare. Buddhism goes back to an idea of ​​ten whites of good deeds, cults of White Tara, God with white umbrella (Sagaan Shyherte).
At Hori white color symbolizes the beginning, the origins of something. That’s why  the beginning of the new year called "white month". Mouse, began a twelve-cycle chronology, and is described as "a mouse with a white mouth" (ama Sagan hulgana);
White color symbolizes a man. If about maternal relatives say "Ulaan shuhan turel" (blood relatives), something about his father's "Sagaan yahan turel" (relatives on the white bone).

Red color

Foto: A. Ligdenova
The red color - the color of joy symbolized happiness, victory, kindness. The red color represents the image of the ancient object of devotion - the Sun and associated with him, fire, light and heat, without there is no life on Earth. In this regard, it should be emphasized that the life-giving Ayusha Burhan, the god of longevity, red in color, in the hands holding jar with immortality elixir.
Respect to the sun, which gives heat, meaning and life, expressed in particular in the fact that the pommel hats drilled crown red silk tassels and red ball (denze), symbolizing the sun and its rays. Comparing the red sun with his soul, Hori believe that their soul will forever soar as the sun overhead.

Symbolism of numbers
Just as things: shelter, clothing, food - in addition to its primary function to meet vital human needs, are immersed additional significant content and the number besides the main counting functions have also added symbolic value. That’s why, the number - it is one of the universal organizing principles by which nature is being developed and created the culture itself.
The number "1"

Foto: D. Tsydipov

The number "1" - the beginning of a series of numbers, expresses the concept of "all", the one, whole, indivisible. The root word - "one" concept derived from it - one, the only, connection, association, - one God, one universe, one sun, the moon, clan, tribe - that is, that is not divided and is understood as a whole.
The number "2"

Foto: D. Tsydipov
The number "2" expresses various steam semantic concepts in binary oppositions: black - white, good - bad, up - down, life - death, good - evil, forward - backward, etc. At the same time, a lot of positive pairs. Two celestial luminaries - the Sun and the Moon. Each person has two of the most honored and loved ones – father and mother.
There are a lot of double names, place names: Tsydenov-Yeshi, Badma Handa, Ulan-Ude, and other. Double word decorates speech.
The Hori say: "One child is not a child." Therefore, at weddings they say good wishes: We wish two children, both boys and girls.
The number "3"

Foto: D. Tsydipov
The number "3" - is one of the sacred numbers in many nations, as in the material and spiritual culture, it is a sign of the Earth.
The number "three" - a symbol of happiness and joy, for it is the basis of all development. All restricted or defined by three, because the beginning, middle, end contains the number of all, and it contains the number "three".
The number "4"

Foto: D. Tsydipov
The number "4" corresponds to the symbol of unity and integrity of creation. Since it involves the horizontal development of the surrounding area - there are four points of the compass: north - south, east - west, the four seasons - winter, spring, summer, autumn, four elements: air, water, fire, earth, and 4 limbs in animals, humans .
In ancient times, Hori custom "sahimzha" provided offering nominal meat four directions. This fact indicates that the Hori has long respected the East-West, South-North and bowed before them.
The number "5"

Foto: D. Tsydipov
The number "5" manifests itself in the historical, cultural and sacred - magical contexts. According to color symbolism food is divided into five groups: white, red, yellow, green and black. Hori have5 species of animals bred: cows, horses, sheep, goats and camels. Animals and humans have five senses: sight, smell, touch, hearing, taste. The world is composed of five basic elements: wood, iron (metal), fire, earth, water.
The number "6"

Foto Z. Dorzhiev
Six in a figurative sense, means the universe: heaven, earth and the 4 corners of the earth, that closes the man from all sides.
The number "6" is a symbol of all living creatures, including humans. There are 6 species of living beings, hell and ban under the ground, animals and people on the ground, asuras and celestials in heaven.
The number "7"

Foto: P. Budaev
In the folklore of all tribes Hori often featured seven figure: - "7 Elders", "Seventy languages​​." To enhance the significance of the number 7 is often replaced by the number 70 or 77. Seventy-seven layers has a "Mother Earth."
In uliger Hori Buryats "Hүheldүүr Mergen" refers to the wedding custom of "9 varieties of food and 7 kinds of struggle" Our informant R. Erdeni explained what are the 7 types of control exist between the parties to the bride and groom: "1 - the fight for the bride, and 2 - the fight for the cushion, 3 - battle for the sun, 4 - battle for the blade, and 5 - the struggle for sahimzha 6 - the fight for the door, 7 - witty debate. "In this case, seven magical acts in the ancient wedding ceremony is aimed at strengthening the prosperity.

The number "8"

Hori have developed over the allocation of the eight cardinal directions - north, northeast, northwest, east, west, south, south-west, south-east. Therefore, the sun spreads its light on all sides of the world, an imaginary eight-pointed.
Number 8 controls the human life: up to 8 years of a child is considered to be a god; 2 times 8 comes the maturity of a man 8 times 8 old age comes
The number "9"
The sun and moon are considered by Hori the creators of both people and animals. B. Rinchen, said: "The people of Mongolian, whose father - a golden moon, whose mother - a golden sun. Sun - an ancient totem of the Mongols, who considered themselves the people of the sun and the moon "(B.Rinchen, 1958, 72).
The number “nine” in Mongolian peoples including Hori is a sacred number. "In the historical period we find sulde 9, 9 species of white food, presented as a sign of acceptance of citizenship" (Tsybikov, 57). "Number 9 was of symbolic value. The great banner of Genghis Khan consisted of 9 parts, the main white - was in the center "(Olyadykova, 120).
The number "nine" in a non-mathematical, and the symbolic meaning embodied in ritual objects. For example, the Hori Buryats isolated 9 species of white food: 3 liquid (milk, ayrag, Taragay), 3 soft (cream, butter, salamat), 3 solid (dried curd, cheese, foams).
The number "10"


Foto: P. Budaev
“Ten” means something comprehensive, law, order, authority. It is no accident with the number "ten" linked the concept of "Arban Han" in Buddhism. These "Ten sahyuusanov" (defenders) protect people from all sorts of misfortunes. This is a tantric deity – Yamandaga, Mahakala, Gongara (White Mahakala), Shagdar, Sendema, Shalshi, Namsaraya, Tsanba, Lhamo.
The numbers above 10

Foto: P. Budaev
Some historical sources say that at the Hori-Buryat were 13 births, two were in Mongolia, so talking about 11 genera Horinsk drilled. Also it is mentioned Sagansabskie petroglyphs 13 swans.
The number "40" is a symbol of maturity. Popular wisdom says, "Four dogs cannot drive, cannot be forty years of teaching." Previously, daughter, do not have voting rights, reaching the age of forty, became full hostesses. Previously not allowed to drink alcohol, a person has not reached forty years.
Symbolism of happiness
What is "happiness"? To quote from the encyclopedia "Wikipedia": "Happiness is well-being, health, long life." The opinions of our informants: "Happiness is warm in the cold, the food when you are hungry, and the sun after the clouds." The study of characters, bringing happiness, we carry in two directions. On the one hand, it is animate objects (people, animals, insects), on the other hand - this inanimate objects.
Group 1
1.       Horse, sheep. If you go on the road and the first to come across a horse or sheep, it will have good luck. These animals with hot breath are considered solar animals.
2.       Mouse - an animal that starts the 12-year cycle - the attribute of god Namsaraya, who gives wealth to people. From the mouth of the mouse fall sacred stones, chindamani (zendemeni) that bring people to the wealth, abundance.
3.       Moose or elk. In a way, if the moose or elk crosses the road on the left to the right, this is a happy sign.
Group 2
There are many auspicious ornaments, symbolizing happiness.
1.        

Ulzy - "twist" - an ancient ornament, symbolizing happiness, prosperity, longevity.
2.        

Ornament "Lanza hee." Hori hang above the house door to do not go thieves. It performs security functions.


3.      

Horn is a lot of cattle. The Hori source of reference is to carry livestock, therefore, the symbol of happiness.
2.      

Ornament "Yurts in a row" means a wish to have many children, because children were considered as one of the first resources.
References
1.     Электронная книга «Буряад хэлэн», 2010, ООО «Сансар»
2.     В.Ш. Гунгаров. Отражение мифологических воззрений в легендах и преданиях хори-бурят. / Традиционный фольклор бурят, Улан-Удэ, 1980).
3.     Б.Ринчен. Соёмбо – эмблема свободы и независимости монгольского народа // Из нашего культурного наследия. – Улан-Батор, 1958. – 72с)
4.     Цыбиков Г. Ц. Буддист-паломник у святынь Тибета. — М.: Ломоносовъ, 2011. — 344 с.
5.     Олядыкова Л.Б. Сакральный белый цвет в монгольских и русском языках // Научная мысль Кавказа. Спецвыпуск. – Ростов-на-Дону: Изд-во Сев.-Кавказ. науч. центра высш. школы, 2006. – № 5. – С. 118-124 (0,4 п.л.).

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