Section 2. The country and its people.
State system, symbolic and economy in Buryatia
Установите соответствие между заголовками A – Н и текстами 1 – 7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
A. Tea road
B. Extracted minerals
C. Support in building
D. Poor, weak land
E. Engines industry
F. Agricultural producers
G. Decline of the economy
H. Economic leader
1. Before the October revolution Buryatia was a backward region of Russia. There were no industrial enterprises. In small houses artisans processed fur, skin, produceed some goods of iron. Minerals were not extracted except gold.
2. As the most important trade routes passed from Russia to China through the Transbaikal region, in Verkhneudinsk there were many rich merchants ' houses, which bought tea, sold grain, fur.
3. The October revolution and the formation of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1923) led to the development of agriculture and industry. The government invested annually many millions of rubles in the national economy of the Republic of Buryatia. Workers in large cities of the Soviet Union took the patronage over the construction of important industrial enterprises.
4. Many built factories were of great importance for the whole of the Soviet Union: the meat processing plant, locomotive repair plant, aircraft industry, pulp and paper mill. With the construction of the Baikal-Amur Railway, which stretched for 500 km in the North of Buryatia, a steel structures plant was built. Here were made bridges for railway.
5. Agriculture had also big changes. In the villages collective farms and state farms were created. Tractors, seeders were used. All important natural products were produced on farms.
6. After the destruction of the Soviet Union the economy of Buryatia had a hard crisis. Many industrial enterprises were closed, collective farms and state farms stopped to exist. In the late 90's the Republic tried to improve the economy through reforms. Many enterprises have been privatized, new farmers appeared.
7. Ulan-Ude aviation plant is considered to be the economic leader not only in Buryatia, but also in Russia. Last year he took the 11th place in terms of sales volume among the 25 largest defense enterprises of Russia.
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Buryatia is a presidential Republic. State (1…..) is exercised by the President, the people's great Hural, the Government and (2….). The President is a head of the state, its (3….) and the Chairman of the Government. The President is elected (4….) five years and (5….) speak two languages - Russian and Buryat. The highest organ of state power is the unicameral national Khural. The Khural (6……) of 66 members.
A. the courts
B. highest official
А15 – А21
Прочитайте рассказ и выполните задания А15 – А21. В каждом задании обведите цифру 1, 2, 3, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.
The flag and coat of arms of the Republic of Buryatia
Blue is the national color of the Buryats, represents eternity. White is the symbol of high moral principles, happiness. Yellow (Golden) emphasizes the spiritual. Religious Buryats profess Lamaism - a kind of Northern Buddhism, which colours are yellow, Golden.
In the upper left corner soemba is pictured. Buryat soemba consists of three elements: the moon, the sun and fire upwards. Fire means warmth, life. The first tongue of flame represents the past, middle - modern, third - future generations. Together the flames talk about the continuity of history. The sun symbolizes life, vitality. The Mongolian and Turkic people worshiped the moon as the main light; these people saw in it a mystery, because the moon was the master of the night.
The green mountain peaks
1. light the local landscape
2. represent the natural scenery
3. praise the natural scenery
A blue ribbon “hadak" symbolizes …… of Buryatia people
Blue is the national color of the Buryats ………..
1. draws a century
2. symbolizes permanence
3. shows mind
1. denies religion
2. blames religion
3. indicates religion
Religious Buryats ….. Lamaism - a kind of Northern Buddhism
Together the flames talk ……….
1. about not interrupted time
2. in permanence of the past
3. on researched history
The Mongolian and Turkic people ……. the moon as the main light